Monument Stone Architecture
More information: Pataliputra, Ashoka pillar, and Mauryan polish
Pataliputra capital, discovered at Bulandi Bagh Pataliputra, site of c. 4 – 3 BC
The next wave of the building appears with the beginning of the classical period (320 BC-550 CE) and the rise of the Mauryan Empire. The capital of Pataliputra was an urban miracle described by the Greek ambassador Megasthenes. Many artifacts from Pataliputra such as the remnants of monumental stone architecture can be seen from the Pataliputra capital. This inter-fertilization between the various art streams being transformed in the subcontinent creates new forms that, while retaining the essence of the past, were successful in integrating selected elements of new influences.
Ashoka Pillar at Vaishali, 250 BC
The Indian emperor Ashoka (ruled: 2-3–232 BC) installed the pillars of Ashoka within his realm, usually next to Buddhist stupas. According to Buddhist tradition, Ashoka recovered the relics of the Buddha from the earlier stupas (except Ramagrama Stupa), and built 84,000 stupas to distribute the relics throughout India. In fact, many stupas are thought to have originated from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where they also erected columns with their inscriptions, and possibly Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara.
Ashoka built the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya around the Bodhi tree, which includes masterpieces such as the Diamond Throne (“Vajrasana”). He has also said that the entire Mauryan Empire was in 230 BC. A chain of hospitals has been established by. One of Ashoka’s edits reads: “Everywhere King Piyadasi (Ashoka) created two types of hospitals for people, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no medical herbs for people and animals, they ordered that they are bought and planted. “Indian art and culture have absorbed outside influences by varying degrees and are too rich for this risk.
Fortified cities with stupas, viharas, and temples were built during the Mauryan Empire (c. 321–185 BCE). Architectural works of the Mauryan period, such as the city of Pataliputra, the pillars of Ashoka, are outstanding in their achievements, and often compare favorably with the rest of the world at that time. Commenting on Mauryan sculpture, John Marshall once wrote: “about the extraordinary precision and precision that characterizes all Mauryan works, and what we never say, we are surpassed by the finest workmanship on Athenian buildings”.