Origin of Indian architecture is considered from the Harappan era. The most striking thing about Indian architecture and architecture is that in spite of such a long time there is a continuation of philosophy in it.
Indus Valley Civilization:
- Age of Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Civilization 3500-1500 BC Until it is considered. It is counted among the world’s four oldest civilizations.
- Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the chief cities of this civilization.
- The buildings here were made of pucca bricks. This is a specialty which was not found in any other civilization of the era.
- The biggest building of Mohenjodaro was his bath. Stone and wood were also used in the construction of houses.
- The goddess Mata Devi found in Mohenjodaro, the metal statue of dancing girl etc. are an outstanding example of the then excellent sculpture.
Architecture of Mauryan:
- The prosperity of the state and the inspiration of the Morya rulers inspired the artifacts.
- There are two forms of art in this era.
- Art built by the presiding officers of Ashoka Pillars
- Folk arts eg. Yakshini of Charmar Vahini and Vesnagar of Dirdanganj Yakshini of Parkham.
- Many cities were developed in India during the Maurya period. Mauryan period was a era-era era from the point of view of the development of Indian art.
- Heavy use of wood
- The art of polishing stones
- From the time of Ashoka, the use of stones was started in building construction.
- Stupas of Sanchi, Bharahut, Bodhgaya, Amravati and Nagarjunkonda are famous from the perspective of architecture.
- Ashok had created 30 to 40 pillars.
- Effect of Greek, Persian and Egyptian cultures
Shung, Kushan and Satavahan dynasty:
- 232 BC Shortly after the death of Ashoka, the Maurya dynasty collapsed.
- After this, the reigns of the Shung and Kushan in northern India and the Satavahan dynasty in the south came.
- The art of this time is Monument Stupa, Cave Temple (Chaitya), Vihar, Shailed Caves etc.
- The construction of the famous stupa of India was completed only during the Shunang period. In this period, Jains built cave temples in Orissa (now in Odisha).
- Some caves of Ajanta were also constructed during this period.
- The cave temple of this period is quite vast. During this period, the Gandhara style was also developed. This style was developed under the protection of Kushanas.
- Another style developed during this period-Mathura style was different from Gandhara.
- The Satavahana dynasty created several huge stupas in the pill, Jaggihpat, Bhattiprolu, Guntsala, Nagarjunkonda and Amravati.
- During the Gupta period, unprecedented progress in the various art forms of art like architecture, architecture, painting, pottery, art etc.
- The top examples of the ancient architecture were the then temples. Temple construction art was born from here.
- The Guptun temples were made of small bricks and stones. ‘The temple of inner guru’ is made from bricks.
- The Cholas developed the Dravidian style and conveyed it to the climax.
- Shiva temple of Tanjore, built by Rajaraja I, is an excellent example of Dravid style.
- During this period, a large entrance gate named Gopuram was being constructed in the temple premises.
- Humanization of stone statues was a great gift to South Indian art of Chola sculptors.
- The idol of Nataraja in Chola Bronze statues is paramount.
Sultanate architecture and architecture:
- The style that developed in the field of Indian architecture in the Sultanate era was a combination of Indian and Islamic styles. That’s why this style of architecture was called the ‘Indo-Islamic’ style.
- Indicates a mixture of Indian and Iranian styles.
- The features of Indo-Islamic architecture style were as follows-
- In the fort, the mausoleum, the mosque, the palaces and the minarets have pointed corners – dome and narrow and high towers.
- In this period, the temple was built in a new way in a mosque built on its wreck by breaking the temples.
- In the memory of the Sultans, the rich and the Sufi saints, the tradition of building tombs began.
- For the first time in the buildings, the arches and dome were used scientifically.
- Due to the prohibition of living objects in the decoration of buildings, many types of flower-leaves, geometric and Quranic verses were used to decorate them.
- The development of ‘Indian Islamic style’ of the prevailing architecture in Delhi Sultanate was developed during Mughal period.
- In Mughal architecture there was a unique blend of styles of places such as Persia, Turkey, Central Asia, Gujarat, Bengal, Jaunpur etc.
- The earliest sequence of development and progress of Mughal architecture is seen in the construction of the cities ‘Fatehpur Sikri’ and in the construction of the cities, and the ultimate culmination is in the construction of Shahjahanabad city of Shah Jahan.
- In the Mughal period, for the first time in the field of architecture, the use of dyes and designs for the first time and the formation of plastics and plastering were used in addition to stone. The use of the ointment made from jewelery on the marble in the field of decoration was also a feature of this era.